What are the types of batteries for new energy vehicles, and which is the best in comparison?

October 20, 2020

What are the types of batteries for new energy vehicles, and which is the best in comparison?


There are many types of new energy vehicle batteries, but they are generally divided into two categories.

One  is energy storage batteries, and the lithium-ion batteries we often say fall into this category.

The other is fuel power battery, which is used by Toyota Mirai.

There are many types of energy storage batteries, such as lithium-ion batteries, lead-acid batteries, and sodium-sulfur batteries that are used in cars.

Lithium-ion batteries are the most widely used. Among them, lithium-ion batteries are divided into ternary lithium-ion batteries, lithium iron phosphate batteries, lithium titanate batteries, etc., ternary lithium-ion batteries are used in passenger applications due to their relatively high energy density It is widely used in cars, representing foreign manufacturers such as Panasonic and LG, domestic Ningde era and BYD; lithium iron phosphate is generally used in passenger cars due to its outstanding safety, and the representative manufacturer is BYD.

Lead-acid batteries are no longer used as power lithium batteries in automobiles. In the 1990s, France used to subsidize lead-acid battery electric vehicles on a large scale, and it turned out to be the wrong technical route. At the craziest time of domestic fraud, some manufacturers also introduced buses equipped with lead-acid batteries.

Sodium-sulfur batteries for vehicles are currently only trial products.

There are also many classifications of fuel power batteries, such as hydrogen fuel power cells, high temperature fuel power cells, direct methanol fuel power cells, methanol reforming hydrogen fuel power cells, metal fuel power cells, and so on.

At present, hydrogen fuel power battery is the mainstream in the passenger car field. It represents manufacturers such as Toyota and Hyundai, and the biggest feature can achieve the full life cycle pollution-free (from the beginning of raw material manufacturing to the final recycling). The fuel hydrogen used has the characteristics of high energy density and zero pollution. The disadvantage is that the current cost is very high and the volumetric power density is limited. Take Hyundai NEXO, a representative of fuel-powered battery vehicles, as an example. The volume of the fuel-powered battery system of NEXO is about the same as a V6 engine, but the output power is only a little over 100KW, about 140 horsepower. The Infiniti Q70L, which is roughly equivalent in price, can reach 338 horsepower.