Advantages And Disadvantages Of Nine Kinds Of Energy Storage Batteries

March 19, 2020

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Advantages and disadvantages of nine kinds of energy storage batteries


Energy storage refers to the storage of electrical energy. Energy storage is another term in petroleum reservoirs, representing the reservoir's ability to store oil and gas. Energy storage itself is not an emerging technology, but from an industrial perspective, it has just emerged and is in its infancy.

So far, China has not reached the extent that the United States and Japan treat energy storage as an independent industry and have introduced special support policies. Especially under the premise of lacking a payment mechanism for energy storage, the commercialization model of the energy storage industry has not yet taken shape .

Lead-acid batteries are generally used in high-power battery storage applications, and are important for the storage of surplus energy in emergency power supplies, battery cars, and power plants. Low-power occasions can also use rechargeable dry batteries: such as nickel-metal hydride batteries, lithium-ion batteries, etc. This article follows Xiaobian to understand the advantages and disadvantages of nine types of battery energy storage.

Advantages and disadvantages of battery energy storage (analysis of nine types of energy storage batteries)

First, lead-acid batteries

Important advantages:

1. Raw materials are easily available and the price is relatively low;

2. Good high rate discharge performance;

3, good temperature performance, can work in the environment of -40 ~ +60 ℃;

4, suitable for floating charging, long service life, no memory effect;

5. Used batteries are easy to recycle, which is good for protecting the environment.

Important disadvantages:

1. Low specific energy, generally 30 ~ 40Wh / kg;

2. The service life is not as good as that of Cd / Ni battery;

3. The manufacturing process is easy to pollute the environment, and three waste treatment equipment must be equipped.

Second, Ni-MH battery

Important advantages:

1. Compared with lead-acid batteries, the energy density is greatly improved, the weight energy density is 65Wh / kg, and the volume energy density is increased by 200Wh / L;

2. High power density, can charge and discharge with large current;

3. Good low temperature discharge characteristics;

4. Cycle life (up to 1000 times);

5. Environmental protection without pollution;

6. Technology comparison Li-ion battery is mature.

Important disadvantages:

1. Normal working temperature range -15 ~ 40 ℃, poor high temperature performance;

2. Low working voltage, the working voltage range is 1.0 ~ 1.4V;

3. The price is more expensive than lead-acid batteries and nickel-metal hydride batteries, but the performance is worse than lithium-ion batteries.

Third, lithium-ion batteries

Important advantages:

1. Higher specific energy;

2.High voltage platform;

3. Good cycle performance;

4. No memory effect;

5, environmental protection, no pollution; currently one of the best potential electric vehicle power lithium batteries.

Fourth, super capacitor

Important advantages:

1. High power density;

2. Short charging time.

Important disadvantages:

The energy density is low, only 1-10Wh / kg, and the supercapacitor's range is too short to be used as the mainstream power source of electric vehicles.

Advantages and disadvantages of battery energy storage (analysis of nine types of energy storage batteries)

Five, fuel-powered batteries

Important advantages:

1. High specific energy and long driving mileage;

2. High power density, can charge and discharge with large current;

3. Environmental protection and no pollution.

Important disadvantages:

1. The system is complex and the technology is poor in maturity;

2. The construction of hydrogen supply system is lagging;

3. There are high requirements for sulfur dioxide in the air. Due to serious domestic air pollution, the life of fuel-powered battery vehicles in China is short.

Six, sodium sulfur batteries


1. High specific energy (theoretical 760wh / kg; actual 390wh / kg);

2. High power (discharge current density can reach 200 ~ 300mA / cm2);

3. Fast charging speed (full 30min);

4, long life (15 years; or 2500 to 4500 times);

5. No pollution and recyclable (Na, S recovery rate is nearly 100%); 6. No self-discharge phenomenon, high energy conversion rate;


1. The working temperature is high, and the working temperature is 300 ~ 350 degrees. When the battery is working, it must be heated and insulated, and the startup is slow;

2. The price is expensive, 10,000 yuan / per degree;

3. Poor security.

Seven, flow battery (vanadium battery)


1. Safe and deep discharge;

2. Large scale, unlimited storage tank size;

3. Has a large charge and discharge rate;

4. Long life and high reliability;

5. No emissions and low noise;

6, fast charge and discharge switching, only 0.02 seconds;

7. Location selection is not restricted by region.


1. Cross-contamination of positive and negative electrolyte;

2. Some use expensive ion exchange membrane;

3. The two solutions have large volume and low specific energy;

4. Energy conversion efficiency is not high.

Eight, lithium air battery

Fatal flaw:

The solid reaction product, lithium oxide (Li2O), accumulates on the positive electrode, blocking the contact between the electrolyte and the air, and causing the discharge to stop. Scientists believe that the performance of lithium-air batteries is 10 times that of lithium-ion batteries, which can supply the same energy as gasoline. Lithium-air batteries absorb oxygen from the air and charge them, so they can be smaller and lighter. Many laboratories around the world are studying this technology, but if there is no major breakthrough, it may take 10 years to achieve commercialization.

Lithium-sulfur batteries (lithium-sulfur batteries are a type of high-capacity energy storage system with great development prospects)


1. High energy density, the theoretical energy density can reach 2600Wh / kg;

2. Low raw material cost;

3. Low energy consumption;

4. Low toxicity.

Although the research on lithium-sulfur batteries has gone through decades and many achievements have been made in the past 10 years, there is still a long way to go before practical applications.