Sodium-ion batteries are the "new darling" of the new energy industry
August 4, 2023
Sodium-ion batteries are the "new darling" of the new energy industry. Let's introduce the difference between sodium-ion batteries and lithium-ion batteries:
1, the battery internal charge carrier is different, lithium-ion batteries through lithium ions in the positive and negative electrode movement, conversion to achieve charge and discharge, and sodium ion batteries are embedded by sodium ions between the positive and negative electrodes, out of charge transfer, in fact, the working principle of the two is the same.
2, the ionic radius of the two is different, which leads to the performance of sodium-ion batteries is far less than lithium-ion batteries; The negative electrode of lithium ion can make graphite, but sodium ion can hardly be removed/embedded in graphite, and the capacity is very small.
Other carbon materials can be processed up to more than 300 milliamps; The capacity of the ion in the positive electrode is very small, only a little more than 100 milliamps; The embedding/deembedding resistance of sodium ions in the positive and negative electrodes is very large, which is due to the large radius. The reversibility is poor and the irreversible capacity loss is large.
Advantages and disadvantages of sodium batteries
1, sodium salt raw material reserves, low price, the use of iron manganese nickel based cathode material compared with lithium ternary cathode material, low raw material cost.
2. Sodium-ion batteries that rely on open 3D structures perform quite well in terms of fast charging, regenerative braking and power start-stop functions, as well as frequency adjustment functions in the power grid sector.
3. Sodium ions do not form alloys with aluminum, and aluminum foil can be used as a negative fluid collector, which can further reduce costs.
4, sodium electricity can be released or maintained at 0V voltage, without changing its subsequent performance.
5. Due to the relatively soft chemical properties of Na, the possibility of dendrites and explosions at high charging rates is lower than that of lithium.
The disadvantages and shortcomings of sodium batteries are short life and fast dischar